The pandemic has greatly affected the wider hospitality sector, with operators having to regularly close over long periods of time due to tougher lockdown restrictions and social distancing measures.
In the Evening Standard’s research, if administrations and Company Voluntary Arrangements are included, around 6,231 chain outlets have been impacted.
Dining chains such as Frankie & Bennys and Chiquitos, Big Tables, Zizzi and Ask and Pizza Express saw restaurant closures of 185, 91, 75 and 73, respectively.
Closures among takeaway chains have also been rampant, with 36 closures at Pret A Mangers, 19 at Abokado, 14 at Tossed and 12 at Chilango.
Bars and pubs have been the least affected, but Greene King and M&B have closed 45 affiliates between them.